Thanksgiving and “Women’s Work”

By Hannah McCandless
Hannah is a first year graduate student in the Women’s History Program.

Grandmother worked in the kitchen for hours leading up to the day of the big event. Mom would make food at home and bring it to grandmother’s house. Aunt May would always bring pie and rolls. I was the only girl of the grandkids, so I was always asked to set the table, even though someone always came behind me fixing my mistakes.

“Mary Jane, why won’t you put Hannah in a finishing school? She needs to know how to set the table!” Said Grandmother. A hidden eye roll and playful smile looked my way. Mom wouldn’t send me to a finishing school. She thought that was silly, especially in this day and age.

My brother and cousins played while I waited for instructions. Carry this, clean that, take this drink to that uncle… I knew it was weird. I didn’t understand why. I was just a kid. But I knew it was not fair that my granddaddy, my father, my uncles, my brother, and my male cousins would not help. And then after all of that hard work, my granddaddy was still the one who got to cut up the turkey. I was unsure how to address something I had no words for. How can you say that something is wrong when you don’t know how to name what is wrong i the first place?

Years later, the traditions have changed. But it is mostly because my grandmother can’t keep up with that much food in the way she used to. Now, my aunt takes on those responsibilities. Now, I find myself still helping. My brother helps more, but not for long before he is told to go sit down and enjoy the company of everyone else.

“Women’s work” is what they call it in feminist writing today. “Women’s work” is the work that people assume women will do, like cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. But it also includes various things at work, like expectations about organizing and party planning and workshop leading. It puts differing values on differing types of work. Women teach and become nurses. Men do construction and become electricians. “Feminine” jobs require a lot of training and furthering education, and yet more “masculine” jobs are paid more and are sometimes viewed better.

“Women’s work” is a cultural phenomenon that is so much a part of the way we value work and how it is gendered. It starts at a young age, and it seems like it becomes a part of the culture of every young women and man.

This Thanksgiving, consider practicing “stepping up and stepping back.” Consider asking male cousins or siblings to help in the kitchen, ask your father or uncle to cook something for the meal, and take a step back. It’s a small structural step that can help change a culture so deeply ingrained in us all.

Stop Pardoning Turkeys, Start Pardoning People

Written by Hannah McCandless
Hannah is a first year student in the Women’s History Program at Sarah Lawrence College.

Every year, the President of the United States will pardon a turkey on or around Thanksgiving. The dad jokes that President Obama used to tell to the lucky turkey are something I personally miss often. The ceremony is generally met with laughter and approval from the general public as we see our president take a step away from their desk and do something lighthearted.

Don’t get me wrong, I think it’s cute. As a non-meat eater, I hope that turkey goes on to live a long and happy life. But I think it’s time to change up the tradition a bit. Rather than having our president step away for some lighthearted turkey pardoning, I think it’s time we tell our presidents to step into their Executive Power sized shoes and start pardoning people instead of turkeys.

The Bureau of Justice reported that Native Americans are 38% more likely to be incarcerated than the national average. AIAN are also more likely to be killed by police than any other racial group. According to the Bureau of Justice, the population of American Indian and Alaska Natives (AIAN) in jail has doubled between 1999 to 2014, which comes out to an average incarceration rate increase of 4.3% per year. Comparatively, the rate of incarceration of individuals of all other races combined raised only 1.4% per year.

The National Council on Crime and Delinquency reports that Native American youth are 30% more likely to be referred to juvenile courts, while white youth are more likely to have their charges dropped completely. Additionally, 71% of AIAN incarcerated are under the age of 39, while only 53.9% of all combined races incarcerated are under the age of 40.

When considering gender, a report compiled by the Lakota People’s Law Project found that AIAN men are four times more likely to be incarcerated than white men, and AIAN women are six times more likely to be incarcerated than white women. Additionally, of the violent crimes committed against Native American women, 88% of them are done by non-Native Americans.

Why are AIAN people incarcerated at such a high rate? And why is it increasing so much from year to year? And why are so many of them so young? The number of ways that the United States Government has suppressed and oppressed AIAN people throughout history are numerous, and even if I tried to list the ways, it would in no way be a comprehensive list. But over incarceration of AIAN are at the top of the list. So this Thankgiving, let’s cut the cute turkey pardoning crap and demand some real change from our government.

#PardonPeopleNotTurkeys

The Farm Bill and its Affects on Native Communities

Written by Sarah Goldman
Sarah Goldman was an Emerson Hunger Fellow from 2017-2018 and researched the Farm Bill and its affects on Native Communities. Her research was used to compile a report that was used to help farmers in Native Communities and to support women and families in their nutritional needs.

This article was adapted from her report: https://www.hungercenter.org/publications/farm-bill-education-and-policy-toolkit-for-tribal-governments-citizens-and-food-producers/

The “Farm Bill” is one of the most important piece of legislation that impacts federal food and nutrition assistance, farming, ranching and rural infrastructure policies in the United States. The most recent Farm Bill was passed in 2014, and Congress is projected to reauthorize the next Farm Bill in 2018. Analysis from the Congressional Budget Office estimated that the 2014 Farm Bill will have $489 billion in spending over five-years [1]. The Farm Bill is incredibly important, and funds many programs that support Americans from nutrition assistance to infrastructure projects such as fire stations and hospitals. Nearly 25 percent of tribal citizens participate in federal feeding programs (certain Native American communities see more than 50 percent of their citizens participating in federal feeding programs) [2], and Native Americans utilize more than 50 million acres of land in food and production agriculture [3]. Native American involvement in the Farm Bill process is essential to build vibrant food systems, and support healthy communities, and is important not only due to Native Americans’ utilization of many Farm Bill programs, but also the fact that their involvement could expand inclusion and remedy funding disparities in the Bill. However, despite the importance of farm bill programs, Native American farmers and communities have often been excluded from these programs.

The Keepseagle v. Vilsack class action lawsuit which was settled in December of 2011 claimed the USDA discriminated against Native Americans by denying them equal access to credit in the USDA Farm Loan Program. The plaintiffs in this case proved that the USDA did not allow Native American farmers and ranchers the same access to farm loans and loan services as were allowed to other (white) farmers. In addition, the USDA did not provide Native Farmers with the same technical assistance or outreach for loan applications. The settlement of this lawsuit was a huge win for Native farmers and ranchers, and a $680 million compensation fund was created with an additional $80 million in debt relief for Native farmers and ranchers. However, there is still lots of work to do in creating parity for USDA programs for Native Producers.

Today, Native American producers receive less average government monetary support than what the average producer in the U.S. receives. In addition, Native American reservations are some of the most rural communities in the United States, and thus require increased investment to access widely utilized technology such as broadband. Native American Tribes across the United States are becoming increasingly involved in the Farm Bill, and in 2017 the Native Farm Bill Coalition was formed to advocate for Native American interests in the 2018 Farm Bill. As stated in the Indigenous Food and Agriculture’s Regaining Our Future report: “the Farm Bill provides resources and programs that will allow [Native People] to reach our goals more quickly than in the past” [4].

Resources

  1. Indigenous Food and Agriculture Initiative (IDAI), Regaining Our Future Report, June 2017, pg. 13, availble at: http://seesofnativehealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Farm-Bill-Report_WED.pdf
  2. U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service, Addressing Child Hunger and Obesity in Indian Country: Report to Congress Summary, Jan. 2012, available at: http://fns-prod.aureedge.net/sites/default/files/IndianCountrySum.pdf
  3. U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agriculture Statistics Service, 2012 Census of Agriculture Highlights: American Indian Farmers, Sept. 2014, available at: http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Online_Resources/Highlights/American_Indian_Farmers/Highlights_American_Indian_Farmers.pdf
  4. IFAI, Regaining Our Future Report, June 2017, pg. 14